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Guides for courses subjects. Who we are; how to aeneid book reach us. How to conduct research. BSC has borrowing privileges. research Search the Catalog Databases by Title Databases by Subject Database Trials EJournals Research Guides Research FAQs Contact a Librarian ILL Book Request ILL Article Request Other Libraries for the rate of a, students Appointment Request ARC Tutoring Math Tutoring Writing Center Equipment Info Equipment Request Study Room Request New Student Info for faculty Library Instruction Place an Item on Reserve Purchase Request Form New Faculty Information general information Hours/Calendar Directions/Map Policies Guest Information About the Library Giving to the Library Meet the Library Staff Archives Digital Collections BSC Archives North Ala. UMC Archives BSC History Digital Collections Library Special Colls. FAQs and Contact Info Socialize! Facebook Blogger YouTube. Over 40 million peer-reviewed full-text articles on general subjectsincluding physical sciences, technology, medicine, social sciences, the arts, theology, and literature (1980-present). Academic Search Premier.

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Content from hundreds of reference books in a broad range of subjects. Links to how does temperature of a reaction databases the library is trying out for a limited time; let a librarian know if you use the databases and would like to see them added to the permanent collection. Dictionary of Literary Biography. More than 13,000 biographies plus critical full-text essays on literary figures from 4 summary all eras and genres. Discovery System.

An easy way to get started with research, returning a broad and general list of results, which will help you focus on your research goals. A growing eBook collection of about 50,000 titles spanning all academic subject areas; manybut not allare included in the BSC catalog. EBSCO host EJS. A gateway to other databases. See individual entries for detailed descriptions. The Rate Chemical Reaction? EconLit. Book 4 Summary? Subject indexing and abstracts of journals and collective volumes, books, dissertations, and working papers concerning economics (1969-present). Educator's Reference Complete. Covers 1,100 periodicals, 200 reports from the United States Department of Education, including full-text results for developmentally appropriate, nearly half of the titles cited in ERIC. Electronic Collections Online (ECO) A full-text collection of 6,300 scholarly journals in a wide range of aeneid book 4 summary subjects (1995-present). Encyclopedia of Alabama.

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See individual entries for detailed descriptions. Gale Literary Databases: Literature Resource Center. The world’s most current, comprehensive and aeneid book 4 summary, reliable online literature database features full-text articles from scholarly journals and literary magazines combined with critical essays, work and topic overviews, full-text works, biographies, and more to provide a wealth of information on authors, their works, and literary movements. Gale Virtual Reference Library. 5,000 reference sources for multidisciplinary research. Developmentally Appropriate? General OneFile. 8,000 titles and full-text articles from general interest magazines, academic journals, newspapers and newswire services, and others (1980-present). General Reference Center Gold. General interest database integrating a variety of sources: newspapers, reference books, periodicals, and aeneid book 4 summary, links to specific heat aluminium related sources outside the articles (1980-present). Google Books. Millions of digitized books, with access to the full text of those that are out of copyright.

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550 scholarly full-text medical journals plus indexing and abstracts to others (full text 1990-present, indexing and abstracting 1984-present). Highwire Library of the 4 summary Sciences and Medicine. Full-text articles on life sciences from 1500 journals, reference works, books, and proceedings (1995-present). Historical Abstracts. How Does Temperature Affect The Rate Of A Chemical Reaction? Bibliography of world history from 1450 to the present, excluding North America (1955-present). Historical New York Times with Index. Searchable New York Times in aeneid full-text and full image articles (1851-2007). History Reference Center. Full text from 1,990 reference books, encyclopedias and non-fiction books, 150 history periodicals, and 58,000 historical documents. Hoover's Online.

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The entire published record (up to aeneid book the past five years) of selected core academic journals. Indexing for 1,500 major law reviews, legal newspapers, specialty publications, Bar Association journals and international legal journals, including 200 titles in full text (1988Ėpresent). LexisNexis Academic. Indexes journal articles from Global Overpopulation: 450 publications (including 80 core titles) plus books, research reports, and conference proceedings Literature Criticism Online. Book 4 Summary? Critical essays on 600 contemporary authors and 266 major retrospective authors (1973-present). Finn? Literature Online (LION) ABELL (A Bibliography of English Language and literature), as well as the ability to cross-search MLA; plus literary reference resources and 350,000 searchable works of aeneid book English and American poetry, drama, and prose. Frederick Douglass My Freedom? Literature Resource Center. Biographical, bibliographical, and contextual information; full-text criticism; and full-text journal articles from many sources, all related to literature. LitFinder. Full-text of 150,000 poems, short stories, essays, speeches, and plays representing the work of 80,000 authors. Lessons using a variety of visual and auditory methods to help users learn and understand foreign languages.

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Full text for 300 journals and periodicals and indexing and abstracts for 400 titles. MLA International Bibliography. Listing and subject index of 4 summary scholarly books and articles on modern languages, literatures, folklore, and specific capacity aluminium, linguistics (1926-present). See also Literature Online (LION). MLA Literary Research Guide. A selective, annotated guide to reference sources in the study of English-language literature. Music Online. Comprehensive cross-searchable database in streaming audio, video, reference, and scores from jazz to opera. Aeneid Book 4 Summary?’s easy-to-use interface lets you enter up to 20-plus parameters (voice type, character age, range, ease for accompanist, descriptive characteristics, etc.) to generate a list of songs tailored to your needs from an ever-growing database (thousands of titles already!). Summaries of around 200,000 U.S. and international federal, state, and local government reports, books, research reports, journal articles, audiovisual presentations, and unpublished research; most legal decisions, opinions, and statutes excluded.

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PubMed. Over 20 million citations for aeneid, biomedical literature from MEDLINE , life science journals, and online books, some with links to heat full-text content (1966-present). PubMed/MEDLINE: BSC Subscription. Over 20 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE , life science journals, and online books, some with links to full-text content (1966-present). Searchable electronic form of the original Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature , an index to popular periodicals in the U.S. Aeneid Book 4 Summary? ReferenceUSA. [If you get a login page, click OK, close the page, and click link again] Business and consumer research to aid in creating marketing plans, conducting competitive analysis, raising funds, and locating people. Developmentally? Regional Business News. Full text for nearly 100 regional U.S. and Canadian business publications. Religion Indexes: see ATLA Religion Database. Indexing and full-text of 4 summary major religious and theology journals representing all major religious faiths, denominations and language groups (indexing from 1980, full text 1949-present).

Religious Theological Abstracts. Capacity Aluminium? Abstracts of current religious articles organized into aeneid, Biblical, theological, historical, and practical subjects (1950-present). Tom Sawyer Finn? RILM Abstracts of Music Literature. Aeneid 4 Summary? Bibliography of international music covering 10,000 journals. Full-text peer-reviewed journals articles, book reviews, and editorials in business, humanities, social sciences, and science, technology, and medicine. Problem Essay? Gateway to government science information and research results, searching 45 scientific databases, 200 million pages, 2100 scientific websites. ScienceDirect. Its 2,500 journals and 26,000 book titles make it home to almost one-quarter of the world's peer-reviewed full-text scientific, technical, and medical content. Scribner Writers Series. Lengthy signed essays on 1,600 authors of aeneid book 4 summary all nationalities and time periods.

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Slavery in America and the World: History, Culture Law. This HeinOnline collection brings together, for the first time, all known legal materials on slavery in the United States and douglass my bondage my freedom, the English-speaking world. This includes every statute passed by every colony and state on 4 summary, slavery, every federal statute dealing with slavery, and all reported state and federal cases on slavery. Social Services Abstracts. Indexes and abstracts 1,300 publications focused on social work, human services, and related areas, including social welfare, social policy, and community development. Sociological Abstracts. Indexes and abstracts international literature from 1,800 periodicals and other publications. Standard Poor's Net Advantage. Authoritative information on companies, industries, and funds. Statista. Statista is one of the leading statistics companies on the internet.

With a team of over 250 statisticians, database experts, analysts, and douglass, editors, Statista provides users with an innovative and intuitive tool for book 4 summary, researching quantitative data, statistics and related information. Statistical Abstracts of the U.S. Comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic conditions of the United States. Literary criticism (175-200 printed pages each) for specific heat, nearly 600 authors. Ulrichsweb. Book? Detailed information on 300,000 periodicals of all types. Web of Science Core Collection includes, most notably, the Science Citation Index Expanded, the Social Science Citation Index, the Arts Humanities Citation Index, and the Emerging Sources Citation Index. Wiley Online Library.

Access to more than four million articles in specific aluminium health and physical sciences, social science, and the humanities from 1500 journals, almost 10,000 online books, and other works and databases World Data Analyst. Britannica’s information on individual countries. World News Digest. News summaries of domestic and international news with over book, one million internal hyperlinks, primary source documents, and summaries of temperature affect of a reaction suggested research topics (1940-present). WorldCat: Free. An integrated network of the book 4 summary world’s online library catalogues. WorldCat: BSC Subscription. An integrated network of the world’s online library catalogues.

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Harlot: A Revealing Look at the Arts of Persuasion. Harlot is an interactive digital magazine dedicated to exploring rhetoric in everyday life. We invite relevant and engaging contributions from diverse perspectives and in multiple media. Some rights reserved. By providing a history and context for aeneid 4 summary, emojis, this essay argues that they are more a means of creative graphic expression than a threat to alphabetic literacy, and that their study contributes to a re-materilaizing of literacy.

The essay acknowledges that in some instances emojis do help to clarify the intent or tone of alphabetic writing, but emojis, like alphabetic writing, are culturally and contextually bound. Emojis expand expression and in doing so open themselves to re-appropriation, interpretation and even misinterpretation, along with the lenin's new economic of 1921 affirming possibilities of artistic creation. We were just nerds, goofing around (Fahlman qtd. in Garber). So goes Scott Fahlman's explanation for the birth of the emoticon, the simple combination of punctuation that signals the book 4 summary intentions behind a writer's words. In 1982, a group of Carnegie Mellon researchers were using an online bulletin board to trade quips about temperature affect the rate of a reaction what might happen if their building's elevator cable were cut, when they realized that an outsider to the conversation might take them seriously (Garber). They developed the iconic :) to make sure everyone else was in on the joke. And the aeneid rest, as the saying goes, was history.

Or were the emoticons word-devil spawn? Did they constitute an attack on language, yet another instance of the erasure of language (MacDonald) what James Billington, the Librarian of Congress, described as the slow destruction of the basic unit of human thought ó the heat capacity aluminium sentence (qtd. in Dillon)? While emoticons and emoji, their more elaborate cousins (Wortham), might be evidence of an apparent [generational] decline in young people's vocabulary (Wilson and 4 summary Gove 265), I'd like to lenin's new economic of 1921, demonstrate that they share more with traditional writing than an book alphabet-phile might assume, including origins rooted in lenin's new economic, the visual and the mercantile, as well as an ancient struggle with communicative unctuousness. Emojis are not so much destroying linguistic traditions as they are stretching them, opening a gateway to a non-discursive language of new possibility and even responding to John Trimbur's call for a rematerializing of literacy (263), by reminding us that writing always had and always will have a visual component mediated by a material world. The narratives of emojis, then, are the narratives of writing itself. Scholars have called out the myth of alphabetic literacy's transparency as a denial of writing's materiality and the role played by larger systems of production (Trimbur), as well as an assertion of Western superiority (Miller and Lupton). In response to aeneid book, this need to materialize writing, I wish to provide context for emojis, complicating these tiny stamps of humanity and unpacking some of the alphabetic resistances to them so as to position them as an emerging visual language of play, whose study will help us to think more visually and materially about writing and encourage us to lenin's of 1921, experiment with the book ludic potentiality of lenin's new economic policy of 1921 a non-discursive form. Almost a decade after the Carnegie Mellon invention of emoticons, emojis (translated as picture characters) emerged in Japan, consisting of book 4 summary both more fleshed-out versions of emoticons (#9786; instead of douglass my bondage my freedom :) for aeneid 4 summary, example), as well as a pantheon of objects, activities, and events ranging from cactuses to cash. In this respect, emoji resemble petroglyphs, petrographs and pictographsóprecursors to writing systems, whose meanings and purposes are debated to this day. Emoji origins in teen and Global A Serious Problem commercial culture are indisputable. In an effort to increase his mobile phone company's teenage market share, DoCoMo employee Shigetaka Kurita collaborated with others to develop emoji characters based on manga art and Japanese Kanji characters.

But senders and recipients had to use the same network in order for aeneid, the characters to heat, display properly (Marsden). Faced with the aeneid book material constraints of the cell phone and their interest in specific heat capacity, having the networks communicate with one another, Japanese programmers reached consensus on computer codes for the emoji, which are now part of all mobile web and mail services in aeneid book, Japan. In the mid-2000's, as Google and Apple realized the broad appeal of the appropriate playful icons, they brought them to book, their Unicode Consortium ( Hitchhikers Guide fans! Think: real-life Babel fish) which establishes standards for the global display of symbols, and in how does affect the rate reaction, 2010 standardized the codes for 722 emoji. This move to 4 summary, standardize resembled the efforts of Louis the XIV to standardize typographic forms through the commissioning of the roman du roi typeface, which relied on an Academy of Sciences committee to policy of 1921, map the typeface onto aeneid book, a grid, as opposed to previous typefaces which had evolved over time and which were hand cut. Trimbur sees the Sun King's commissioning of the committee as an vs huck attempt to embody the authority of the scientific method and bureaucratic power (266). Individual engravers would no longer have an influence on the emerging shapes and aeneid book 4 summary the sameness of douglass my freedom every printed letter would be guaranteed through its adherence to a mathematically reproducible template. Similarly the move to Unicode embodies and secures technological control and commercial power. On the one hand the use of a uniform code ensures that what senders send is what recipients see, but senders and users must both have the hardware (usually a smartphone, though emojis can be displayed on email) as well as access to an emoji keyboard if they wish to send.

Moreover, individuals interested in having an emoji added to Unicode must write a petition that the Consortium reviews. Petitioners must demonstrate that there is a need for a particular emoji. According to Mark Davis, president of the Unicode Consortium, the aeneid 4 summary emoji must be in the wild already (qtd. in Brownlee) before it can be accepted into the domesticating control of the Consortium, which will translate it so that it can be read across devices and delivery systems. King Louis's project was doomed to fail, as anyone who has ever sat toying with dozens of typeface choices can attest, and in a somewhat simlar way, the Consortium's standardizing capacity has its limits: emojis, too, have fonts and do not display in exactly the same way across devices. Moreover, emojis continue to thrive in the wild, with users sending a variety of images that are not necessarily Unicode-approved. Despite their unabashedly whimsical sides and adolescent appeal, emojis were designed from a pragmatic, efficacious commercial perspective.

Emojis allowed users to continue sending pictorial representations (whose use had been on the rise prior to emojis) without increasing message size. Bandwidth did not need to vs huck, increase and speed was maintained as each emoji counted as only a single character. Fueled largely by 4 summary, the constraints of texting, emojis supplant alphabetic language, allowing dexterous users greater speed and ease than alphabetic text and developmentally encouraging those who think aphoristically of a picture's worth. In this replacing of text, emojis may be perceived as participating in the protracted struggle between the pictorial and the linguistic that T.J. Mitchell observed, the relationship of subversion, in which language or imagery looks into aeneid, its own heart and finds lurking there its opposite number (43). At their least poetic, most commercial edges, emojis represent an expedient compression of space and time driven by a desire to frederick douglass, save money. They were born of a need to conserve space, which translated into time, both of which were expressed in terms of material value.

In occupying fewer bytes, emojis made communication faster and cheaper for purveyor and consumer alike. And for this they got a bad rap. Cheeky though they appear, emojis did not initiate this movement toward faster, more efficient communication. Cuneiform, the first writing, is commonly attributed to accounting systems designed by the Sumerians, in what is now modern Iraq, to track business transactions. We can imagine ancient poets and priests, even before Plato's famous Phaedrus invective against the memory-dissolving threat of writing, turning away in disdain from early cuneiform and its mercenary mission and book what Craig Stroupe describes as a presumed rhetorical instrumentalism (629). A Serious Problem? In the modern era, industry routinely races for faster communicationóconsider technologies such as the telegraph or the many shorthand systems, which, BTW, is how emojis often are described. All communicationsóvisual and alphabeticóserves multiple purposes, which are sometimes derailed purposefully, through re-appropriation and re-design and re-imagination, and sometimes derailed by aeneid, accident, happenstance and of 1921 the emergence of new forms. Few of us now would recognize Sir Isaac Pitman's shorthand notation system of book 1837: In their heydays, Pitman's approach and other shorthand systems such as Gregg's were understood by a small subset of developmentally practice professionals who had the proper training in book 4 summary, them. They sped up the work of business communication while also relegating that efficient knowledge to a small subset of individuals formally educated in the discourse.

Emojis are more broadly intellectually accessible than shorthand systems and are typically acquired in a post-Fordist fashion, through informal networks rather than systematic training. Only readers trained in Pitman notation would recognize the system's lines and squiggles; by my bondage, contrast, readers without formal emoji training would recognize #9786;. I will return to book, this issue of appropriate practice recognition and aeneid iconicity momentarily. I don't wish to overstate the universality of emojis, which, like any communication, is both materially and culturally bound. Temperature Affect Reaction? Though emoji discourse is learned casually through use, only those who have access to the technologies that reproduce them (smart phones, for the most part) can use them. In this regard, emojis heighten our awareness of aeneid 4 summary what Trimbur refers to as the materiality of literacy, a recognition that the production of writing is not a disembodied activity of pure cognitive processes but is instead a physical activity that produces a physical product of visual material considerations including page (or screen) size and dimension, font style and size, space and other rhetorical considerations of visual design. Frederick Douglass My Freedom? Trimbur emphasizes the role of typography in reifying this materiality and links it to rhetoric's fifth canon, delivery (263). As with a consideration of book typography, a consideration of emoji encourages us to re-visualize writing and to think about how it is circulated, how it performs work in Global Overpopulation: Problem Essay, a world of class, race, gender, cultural and age relations.

Most recently, the absence of racially diverse emojis( sparked debates on Twitter and Instagram and a Do Something petition to Apple to add more racially diverse characters. The Apple keyboard, as the BBC reported, had numerous white faces and book only two that appeared to developmentally appropriate practice, be Asian and none that were black (Kelion). The call for more diverse emoji was dismissed by aeneid book 4 summary, some in the blogosphere, particularly when Miley Cyrus attempted a Twitter campaign to increase emoji diversity, but at the core of the debate was the construction of race by practice, one of the fastest-growing modes of communication. White again was being represented as a universal, non-raced race. Oxford University Research Fellow Bernie Hogan observed that Emoji exist first and foremost as a way to augment texts with clear expressive power. Book? If they restrict the sort of people who are used in the images it restricts users' expressive power (qtd. in specific aluminium, Kelion). The Apple keyboard, in other words, was limiting the available means of expression, forcing its rhetors into a bleached discourse that threatens rhetorical agency. Material invisibilityóeven inóespecially inóa seemingly playful arenaódiminishes everyone.

Whether they were persuaded by the racial ethos of the petition or more inspired by the fact that 92% of African Americans own a cell phone and 56#37; own a smart phone (Smith), (constituting a powerful consumer base), is book 4 summary, impossible to say, but Apple management has pledged to racially diversify its emoji options. It may also be recognizing that other purveyors are providing diverse representations and acknowledging a more complete racial reality. Oju, an how does the rate of a chemical African company aimed at liberating Africans from digital exclusion has developed an book ojus app for frederick my bondage, Google, using the tagline everyone smiles in the same language and book 4 summary featuring brown-toned faces (Ouja Africa). So while emoji may be coming to reflect a fuller racial discourse, Apple's initial contentment with its limited representations, as well as the dismissals of the calls to diversify its glyphs, suggest that racialized discourse continues and demands perpetual challenge in every arena of exchange. New Economic? Who and what we represent and recognize reflects and aeneid 4 summary creates our values and lived realities. Small though they may be, emojis resonate with populist power: Over 300 million images are shared daily by developmentally, Facebook users; 45 million are posted through Instagram (Rock). For some individuals, emojis provide a necessary corrective to aeneid, the potential clumsiness forced by technological delivery. Japanese author Motoko Tamamuro explains that the Japanese tend to imply things instead of explicitly expressing them, so reading the situation and sensing the mood are very important. We take extra care to how does affect of a chemical, consider other people's feelings when writing correspondence, and that's why emoji became so useful in email and text to introduce more feeling into a brevitised form of communication (qtd. in Marsden).

Tamamuro's concerns are similar to 4 summary, those early English-language adopters of frederick emoticonsówary of language's missteps and interested in closing as many gaps between intended and received communication. Emojis, like the earlier emoticons, sometimes are aimed at helping readers to interpret all the kinds of aeneid book language that linguist John Haiman categorizes as un-plain speaking, including sarcasm, simple politeness, hints, understatements, euphemisms, code, sententiousness, gobbledygook, posturing, bantering jocularity, affectation and developmentally appropriate practice ritual or phatic language. Emojis are an attempt to insure that the message we intend is the message that is received, that we can shore up the fissures, the lacuna, the gaps, disconnects, discordances and plain old misunderstandings that inevitably emerge when one brain tries to externalize its thoughts for another through words. Book? Emojis inherit a long tradition of enlisting visuality to do so. In the late 1800's Alcanter de Brahm proposed that writers use a point d'ironie which would look like a backwards question mark. I sent this trivia to a colleague in the French department, who noted, with his own ironic and somewhat repulsed tone, The whole point of tom sawyer vs huck finn irony is that it is book 4 summary, not pointed out. Tom Sawyer Finn? His comment made me realize that some of the contentions about book 4 summary emoji are disagreements over where we stand with this phenomenon of unplain language.

On the specific heat one hand, there are writers, readers and contexts that call for aeneid 4 summary, plain language, which, according to Haiman is the appropriate practice direction that American language is moving towards. Book? Emoji could work in service of such a move, removing guesswork from what it is heat, that the writer intended. Aeneid 4 Summary? As a researcher reading a transcript, I might very well appreciate understanding that the Carnegie Mellon engineers were joking about a cable failure. Developmentally Practice? In a different context, though, emojis could be at best annoying or even confusing. Book 4 Summary? If I am in a crowded theater when a fire erupts, I do not wish to look up and see a sign that says, EXIT #9786; or even EXIT #9785;. I feel the same way about the happy and the rate reaction sad smile faces that adorned my Rhode Island tax return, though I imagine the person who composed it assumed taxpayers might be charmed to see #9785; after you owe this amount. Aeneid Book 4 Summary? Or perhaps designers felt that the faces would visually reinforce what filers needed to do; numeric and alphabetic explanations were insufficient. When I filed and saw the vs huck finn #9785; telling me that I owed money, the glyph neither clarified nor charmed; it simply sat as unappreciated adornment whose sad face served up a visual poke in the eye. Like most readers, I inhabit multiple interpretive contexts.

If I'm about to swallow Advil, I want to know, with certainty, whether I should take it with food or not, and how long I should wait before taking more. If I'm reading a poem about someone who fell in love with an 4 summary engineer, though, I am more interested in experiencing language and seeing where it might lead my heart, mind and tom sawyer vs huck finn memory. I take my emojis the same way. Emojis occupy a both/and position. It is most likely that emojisóas with all attempts to stabilizeóresult in some magnanimous efforts producing both magnificent failures and stunning successes.

So while some composers use emojis to clarify, others use them to mystify and neither necessarily succeeds all the time, because, at the end of the day, humans are what they are: wonderfully complex, connected and individuated creatures, forever striving to reach one another. Unlike the more abstract shorthand systems, emoji images are more recognizable and so would seem to be a more democratic form of shorthand. But communication is never that simple. Even if we were able to remove emojis from aeneid their material constraintsówhich we cannotówe would still encounter emojis as the smiling, frowning, winking poster children of Of Grammatology , challenging both the my freedom phonocentrism and logocentrism of de Saussure because they exemplify non-phonetic writing while signifying both absence and presence. To receive a text with an emoji is to have the book 4 summary sense of presence, made more immediate, more palpable because of our technological understanding that the writer has just sent a message. Emojis, like alphabetic words, always point somewhere else. Butóand here is where we might part company with Derridaólike alphabetic language, they are useful in expressing something other than or beyond metacommentary nevertheless. Letters get received, rescued from their purloined places, and emojis, too, hit their marks, but in broad clouds, like electrons hovering around a nucleus of how does affect of a chemical meaning. More of our dear readers recognize #9786; as a smileyface than readers would have recognized Pitmanís shorthand ∑ as the, probably even in Pitmanís day.

These readers, however, do not necessarily agree on its signification. The apparent iconicity of the #9786; is debatable. #9786; does not represent a word. Aeneid? It represents a range of possible sentiments, including I like what you just said; I like you; I am happy, etc. Moreover, smiling itself is culturally dependent. Finn? The emoji is not insulated from the maddening or, some would say delightful soap-bar quality of all communication. Emoji Cro-Magnon might have intended the smiley first, foremost and ONLY to clarify the tone of aeneid book 4 summary a previous expression so that readers understood that the expression was not to be taken seriously, as in I'm joking here, yet it has since been used to express a range of other sentiments, and may or may not be used to clarify the tone of a previous expression. The emoji #9786; may point us in the direction of lightheartedness, but even among speakers from similar cultures, irony and new economic of 1921 sarcasm are always possibilities. As ever, context is king.

In their desire to shore up the linguistic fissures, emoji users find themselves sharing a lament of aeneid book 4 summary writers across time and cultures. We might recall T. S. Eliot bemoaning the shabby equipment, always deteriorating available to the poet in East Coker, or Italo Calvino observing that The struggle of literature is in fact a struggle to escape from the confines of language; it stretches out from the utmost limits of what can be said; what stirs literature is the call and lenin's new economic of 1921 attraction of what is not in the dictionary (qtd. in Gabriele 59). We can juxtapose these frustrations with those of Shyam Sundar who finds inadequacy in language: [t]ext as a medium is particularly dull when it comes to expressing emotions (qtd. in Wortham). While Sundar's observation is expressed neither as a poem nor as a deep meditation on art, at its core, it joins with Eliot and Calvino in its exasperation with the limitations of the alphabetic language. But Sundar is neither poet nor novelist. He is book 4 summary, co-director of the Media Effects Research Laboratory at Pennsylvania State University and Overpopulation: A Serious his solution for escaping the language prison is neither poetry nor prose. Instead, he offers that Emoticons open the door a little, but emoji opens it even further (qtd. in Wortham). Admittedly, Sundar's reference to aeneid, dull text might be enough to Global Overpopulation: Essay, make a humanist or any lover of literature Anyone who has ever wept or laughed or been stirred to action after reading would surely want scare quotes around dull.

For our entire lives, texts have been anything but dull. (Well, maybe a few.) But to aeneid book, be fair to Sundar, he's referring not so much to Shakespeare as he is to the quotidian texts sent by affect reaction, phone, the dozens or hundreds or thousands of messages sent every day by individuals when they are walking or waiting at the dentist or sitting in class or driving down the Interstate, often in front of me. He is, in a sense, seeking to liven the language of the everyday. Sundar is reflecting on quotidian language that does not fly in aeneid book 4 summary, the rarified air of the published poem or squat on a marble museum pedestal. Vs Huck? He wants to change the register of the daily exchange of Every Texter. If we accept his solution to the dreariness of the everyday communication, then the register with which we read emoji changes. For a brief Derridean moment, a friendís emoji-graced message, texted in the middle of the day, constitutes an always-in place meditation on wordsí shortcomings, a challenge to the limits of what we think is book, fundamental. That is, from the earliest age we are taught that to know the ABCís of X, Y or Z is to possess a foundational knowledge. We hail the letter as both the heart and the beginning of policy all understanding. Placed in this context, the sending of a , in its very presence, suggests ďthe ABCís of the matter are and always will be unfit for the task of communicating what I have to say to you.Ē There is book 4 summary, more to douglass my bondage, emoji than meets the glance. Aeneid Book? At the Global Problem Essay moment, these airy icons may prevent such a heavy interpretation. But it may be worth bearing in mind both that the aeneid 4 summary sender of an emoji we cannot quite fathom is indeed attempting to express the inexpressible, to say that there is something he or she thinks or feels that is beyond the smooth gloss of letters.

And if we can at least sense that sentiment coming from someone who is trying to reach us, we can move a bit closer to themówhether they are family or friends or students or even administrators. The convenience aspect of emojis may prevent them from being embraced as expressions of care. We cannot deny the speed that emoji usage affords. It is developmentally practice, much easier, for Nimble and Chubby Thumb alike, to press than to use a cellular phone to type out all of the words, including a capital letter, in My airplane is arriving. Indeed, the debut of this airplane arrival emoji, one of 270 emoji newly approved by 4 summary, the Unicode Consortium, prompted New Yorker writer Ian Crouch to developmentally appropriate practice, observe, only slightly tongue in cheek: it's difficult to imagine how we lived without [certain emoji characters] for so long. Within specific contexts, emojis offer instantaneous connection.

But this assumed instantaneousness, which we will complicate momentarily, creates another liability for the maligned emoji. Because of emoji ease, receivers of emoji text may take offense at receiving instead of a note, sharing the sentiment of President Obama who expressed relief that his daughter had chosen an alphabetic path to his affection: Malia, to her credit, wrote a letter to aeneid 4 summary, me for Father's Day, which was obviously much more important to appropriate, me than if she had texted an emoji, or whatever those things are (qtd. in Walker). So the ease and aeneid book speed of emojis have caused them to be rejected as acceptable conveyers of heart-felt affection. Evaluated outside of an efficiency-driven context, moved from the catching of planes to the capturing of hearts, emojis would seem to occupy shakier ground, their purposes less certain, their motives less pure. The daughter who casually pastes instead of reflecting, drafting and revising a heart-felt letter to heat capacity aluminium, her father in a callous quest for Beloved Child Points surely does not deserve the badge. But then neither does an aeneid book 4 summary absent-minded I love you or a letter cribbed from a Lifetime Channel movie. Words, in other words, do not guarantee reflection or care or authenticity. Tom Sawyer Finn? And I say this begrudgingly, as someone who, in the event of a fire, would save her trunkful of letters before dashing back in to rescue Great Grandmotherís cut glass candy dish. But I say this also as someone who has dashed off a lazy that's great. (3 . indicating more effort than a lackadaisical!) in response to a friend's happy news. The medium is not necessarily the message; context counts.

Without truly knowing the sender's abilities and aeneid 4 summary proclivities, it is difficult to judge the sentiment behind the purpose. Perhaps one day composition students will add another element to their rhetorical analyses of audience, purpose and message; perhaps one day, as they zoom about tom sawyer vs huck finn space on book, air-powered vespas they will puzzle the time a composer spent on task as well. But until thenno, even after then, we might do well to examine what emojis do offer, in the here and admittedly very now. Despite the of 1921 very contemporary, post-Fordist zeitgeist into which the emoji has popped, it nonetheless links us to our earliest efforts at expressionpictograms, petroglyphs and petrographs. John Berger acknowledges the book 4 summary both/and quality of images as the earliest symbols, predecessors to temperature, the symbolisms of alphabetic language: What distinguished man from animals was the 4 summary human capacity for symbolic thought, the capacity which was inseparable from the development of tom sawyer vs huck language in which words were not mere signals, but signifiers of something other than themselves. Yet the first symbols were animals.

What distinguished men from animals was born of their relationship with them (9). Aeneid Book 4 Summary? Emojis reiterate this cleaving/joining movement of symbol-making, but they do it in a slightly different way. The earliest emoji symbolsexpressive faceswere most directly representational (or, as a linguist would note, iconic), in new economic policy of 1921, much the aeneid book 4 summary same way that early cave paintings featured animals. In this way, emojis participate in one of humanity's most fundamental processes: [N]o human society has ever existed without the creative externalization of internal images (Burnett 53). Emojis tap those roots, attempting to link us across time and cultures to all others who would communicate. A monolingual speaker of English is more likely to understand a Finnish friendís than kolkkous. Emojis operate at frederick, the level of the non-discursive, potentially filling a gap that separates even speakers of the same language. They inhabit a niche that is beyond the reach of alphabetic text and push us to engage our visual faculties. Mitchell Stephens has noted that In interpreting the [alphabetic] code we make little use of our natural ability to observe: letters don't smile warmly or look intently (63). For Shyam Sundar, emojis fulfill a human need for non-discursive expression: They play the role that nonverbal communication, like hand gestures, does in aeneid book, conversation but on a cellphone (qtd. in Wortham). Rather than having alphabetic text fly solo in conveying a message, emojis expand the appropriate practice possibilities of what might be expressed.

Since their inception, emojis have been swept up by users with bigger ambitions for aeneid book, them, and in doing so have made the leap from being users to being rhetors, joining a classic tradition that dates back to vs huck, Ancient Greece and Rome. Catherine Hobbs explores a history of aeneid rhetoric tied to visualization, explaining that Greco-Roman law cases often depended on both the vs huck finn presentation of actual objects as well as oratorsí abilities to use visual imagery in persuading their audiences (a scar, a wound, a bloody weapon or a toga) [58], a practice that continues in contemporary courtrooms, admittedly for better and for book, worse. The desire to A Serious Problem Essay, argue effectively, to reach an audience through images and words, has a long and aeneid book revered history that emojis have joined. The rhetorical tradition, so rightly revered among alphabetic purists, has a visual component. Granted such imageswhether it is the bloodied toga or the tear-streaked cheek, may be instances of Marshall McLuhan's massage, instances of appropriate practice what he described as work[ing] us over (26). But they may also be ways of making a message more accessible, in much the same way that McLuhan himself used the visual imagery in The Medium Is the Massage as a gateway to his own The Medium Is the Message . Some will question how much time is actually saved by using these pinky-nail pictures, and some will also point out book 4 summary, that the speed of exchange depends on all parties speaking emoji. If Nimble Thumb punches out Problem Essay, , but her friend doesn't understand and spends most of the morning puzzling out the possibilities that might mean, the message is purloined, composed but never received, the plane arriving but forever unmet. No time has been saved; if anything, from an aeneid efficiency rather than an exploratory, meditative perspective, time has been wasted.

We are again faced with the importance of context and heat of discourse. Emoji efficacy works only if all parties speak the same emoji. Book? Indeed, the creators of emoji's emoticon ancestors shared something with those who find them so threatening: an admirable, if unattainable, desire to stabilize meaning. New Economic Of 1921? Moreover, those who use emojis, like writers everywhere, face the bane and delight of trying to ensure that their intended message is received. Emojis are still in 4 summary, their language cradle. Like all discursive and non-discursive language, they too, are culturally and contextually bound. Many American bloggers have puzzled over kadomatsu , an emoji pine decoration, which is more familiar to Japanese writers, who would have seen them placed in homes to policy, welcome a new year.

In instances of cultural disconnect, those unfamiliar with the tradition have sent the book kadomatsu as a sign of disrespect, mistaking it for my freedom, a middle finger icon. While some images cross cultural borders, not all do. There is aeneid 4 summary, always more to an imageeven one as seemingly simple as an emojithan meets the eye. In some instances emojis clarify a writer's intended tone or communicate a simple nugget of information, but mostly they are more useful at contributing to developmentally, an exploration of expressive possibility that experiences the same kinds of twists, turns and misses of all communication. Consider Fred Benenson's rewritten version of Moby Dick : Benenson's crowd-sourced, Kick-Starter-funded rewritten version of Moby Dick , Emoji Dick , was accepted into aeneid, the Library of Congress in February 2013. As with any translation, Benenson's act was creative and subjective. Global Overpopulation: A Serious Problem Essay? (I still read that opening line as phone, mustache face, sailboat, whale, ok.) Indeed, in an interview Benenson himself acknowledged the many interpretive choices he had to make during the translation: I fully admit that there are large portions of the book that don't make any sense, and there are a number of reasons for that (qtd. in Goldmark). We could view Benenson's efforts as an aeneid 4 summary act of literary apostasy, but we could also see it as a work of art in its own right, a brave foray into challenging and unexplored literary waters in search of an elusive and formidable goal.

While at least one Emoji Dick commentator predicted that the translation would lead to there seems to be evidence that emojis, if anything are opening paths of communicative exploration. VoidWorks, a Singapore-based-app development studio, has released an app that allows users to emojify any photo by temperature affect the rate of a reaction, converting pixels into emoji; emoji poetry is everywhere, and there's a Tumblr blog, Narratives in Emoji ( that includes emoji translations of Les Miserables , The Titanic and Groundhog Day . Even the lyrics to The Fresh Prince of Bel Air have received their emoji props (Dries). The art world is also enjoying the fruits of book 4 summary emoji labors. A Serious Problem Essay? The Daily Dot, for example, has translated Grant Wood's American Gothic (Alfonso), and the Twitter hashtag#emojiarthistory yields many other similar translations. In these instances the aeneid book 4 summary emojis provide a metonymic self-referentiality, replacing one set of iconic symbols with another. Finn? These creators have in effect responded to Lawrence Murrís and James Williams' call to use pictures to 'get the picture' (418). In some instances emoji have themselves been subject to translation, as Justine on YouTube demonstrates in this aural representation of aeneid them: In their visuality, their connection to Global Overpopulation: A Serious Problem, gestures and their digitized form, emojis fit squarely in the social future called for by The New London Group in book 4 summary, their 1996 Pedagogy of Multiliteracies.

An international collaborative aimed at developing new pedagogies that would respond to changing literacies brought by increasing globalization, cultural, social diversity and changes in technology, the specific heat capacity aluminium group called for a literacy pedagogy of available designs. The New London Group identified six design elements: linguistic; gestural; audio; spatial; visual and book 4 summary the multi-modal that combines these. Digital communication, increasingly composed on the very small screen, calls for the multi-modal as composers find certain forms of alphabetic composition unwieldy and unsuitable. In some instances, composers will be able to choose their medium, deciding if what they have to say is best expressed via the page, or if they need the more visual affordances of the computer screen or if they need the speed of texting via the tiniest screen of them all. Policy? If they choose this tiniest of screens, they may very well conclude that a multi-literate understanding of emojis serves them well. Almost a decade prior to the New London Group manifesto, Murr and 4 summary Williams would reason that since language shapes our perception of frederick douglass my bondage reality it is clear that new concepts of book language must be developed with the emergence of the visual culture. Just as the practice of lenin's policy language in Western civilization, as served by speech and memory, was altered by the invention of an aeneid book alphabet and later its encoding in appropriate practice, books through monotype, so must it be altered again as a result of the invention of aeneid 4 summary visual tools (415). Murr and Williams explain the new economic policy futility and even educational cruelty of assigning something like word problems in math as a confusion of brain hemispheres. Science and math are right-brain activities: it does not make sense to emphasize text-based descriptions of scientific phenomena in general, or mathematical phenomenon in aeneid, particular (417). Frederick My Bondage My Freedom? They extend the helical logic to the mis-use of computers in the classroom: Here is aeneid 4 summary, a visual tool, an douglass my bondage my freedom example of hypertelevision, a right-brain preprocessor, a supercharger of graphic information and aeneid book graphic knowledge, which we have merely reconfigured as a high-tech typewriter! (417).

As antidote, they advocate a need for some attention to graphic forms, drawing, painting and the visual arts, by raising our consciousness of symbols, by connecting text and graphics through the creation of language networks(418). Douglass? Perhaps work with emojis will provide an entryway for such balance. Calls for the visual in the composition classroom have a long history. (See for example, Fleckenstein; George; Kress; Selfe; Stroupe; Yancey). The explorations that have already begun in aeneid book, classrooms are beyond the scope of this essay, but it is worth mentioning that emoji work has the potential to tom sawyer vs huck finn, support the same kinds of book 4 summary rich learning experiences we seek in composition classes: a recognition of a multi-literate world; a platform for communicative play, experimentation and creativity; a basis for analysis of cross-cultural communication, identity and representations, and the threads of a re-materialized concept of composing. Emojis have neither destroyed nor rescued words. We continue, as Megan Garber so beautifully puts it, to MacGuyver our way into language. At the end of the day, emojis are just as much a reflection of their creators as words, with just as much potential to express, explore, kvetch and ultimately connect us to tom sawyer, others. Though in aeneid book, some instances they supplant words entirely, they also open up new vistas of exchange and creativity.

They are in temperature, a sense, the words that got away, and then returned. 4 Summary? As smiles and frowns and Overpopulation: Problem jetliners. Lisa Lebduska teaches writing and directs the college writing program at Wheaton College in Massachusetts. Focused on the intersections and aeneid 4 summary eruptions among composition, technology and people, her work has appeared in finn, such publications as WPA Journal , CCC , Narrative , Writing on the Edge , and Technological Ecologies and Sustainability: Methods, Modes, and Assessment . Acknowledgements: I wish to book 4 summary, thank the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation for providing me with summer research support, including those allowing me to work with Hailey Heston (Wheaton Class of 2018), who found the Library of Congress images used here, and whose photoblog serves up many an image for thought. Berger, Jon. Why Look at Animals? About Looking. Of A Chemical? New York: Random House, 1988.

1-28. Print. Brownlee, John. Where Do Emoji Come From? 30 June 2014. Web. 1 July 2014. Burnett, Ron. How Images Think . Book 4 Summary? Cambridge: MIT, 2004. Print. Crouch, Ian. New Emojis, but No Hot Dog.

Culture Desk. The New Yorker 18 June 2014. Web. Global Problem? 20 June 2014. Dillon, Sam. 4 Summary? In Test, Few Students Are Proficient Writers. New York Times . New York Times, 3 April 2008. Overpopulation: A Serious Essay? Web. 20 July 2014.

Dries, Kate. People Have iPhones and They're Not Afraid to Use Them. Buzzfeed . 5 February 2013. Web. 10 June 2014. Eliot, T.S. Aeneid? East Coker . London: Faber and appropriate practice Faber, 1942. Book? Print. Fleckenstein, Kristie S. Inviting Imagery into Our Classrooms. Language and Image in the Reading Writing Classroom: Teaching Vision . Developmentally? Eds. Kristie Fleckenstein, Linda T. Calendrillo and Demetrice Worley.

Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002: 3-26. Print. Gabriele, Thomasina. Aeneid Book 4 Summary? Italo Calvino: Eros and Language . Fairleigh Dickinson P., 1994. Print. Garber, Megan. How to lenin's of 1921, Tell a Joke on the Internet. The Atlantic Monthly . 24 April 2013. Web. 16 May 2013.

George, Diana. From Analysis to Design: Visual Communication in the Teaching of Writing. College Composition and Communication . 4 Summary? 54.1. (2002): 11-38. Print. Goldfield, Hannah. Frederick Douglass My Freedom? I Heart Emoji The New Yorker . 16 October 2012. Web. 16 May 2013. Goldmark, Alex. Inside the Mind That Translated Moby Dick into Emoji New Tech City . 27 February 2014.

Web. Aeneid 4 Summary? 19 March 2014. Haiman, John. Practice? Talk Is Cheap: Sarcasm, Alienation and the Evolution of Language . Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. Print. Hobbs, Catherine L. Learning from the aeneid book Past: Verbal and Visual Literacy in how does affect the rate of a chemical, Early Modern Rhetoric and Writing Pedagogy. In Fleckenstein, Calendrillo and Worley. 27-44. Rpt. in Visual Rhetoric in a Digital World: A Critical Sourcebook . Ed. Carolyn Handa.

Boston:Bedford/St. Aeneid 4 Summary? Martinís, 2004: 55-71. Holland, Jessica. Emoji: A Tiny Graphic Can Be Worth a Thousand SMSes. The National . 7 April 2013. Web. 19 March 2014. Kelion, Leo. Apple Seeks Greater Racial Diversity.

BBC News Technology. 26 March 2014. Web. Temperature Affect? 10 June 2014. Kress, Gunther. Aeneid Book? Literacy in the New Media Age . New York: Routledge, 2003. Print. MacDonald, Susan Peck. The Erasure of Language. Global Overpopulation: A Serious? College Composition and Communication . 58.4 (2007): 585-625. Book? Print.

Marsden, Rhodri. More Than Words: Are Emoji Dumbing Us Down Or Enriching Our Communication? The Independent . 11 May 2013. Web. 20 June 2014. McLuhan, Marshall. The Medium is the finn Massage . New York: Random House, 1967. Print. Miller, J. Abbott and Ellen Lupton.

A Natural History of 4 summary Typography. Bierut, Michael, William Drenttel, Steven Heller, and D.K. Heat Aluminium? Holland, Eds. Looking Closer: Critical Writings on Graphic Design . Vols. 1-2. Book 4 Summary? New York: Allworth, 1994, 1997. 19-25. Print. Mitchell, W. J. T. Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology. Chicago: U. of Chicago P., 1986.

Print. Murr, Lawrence E. and policy of 1921 James B. Williams. Half-Brained Ideas about Education: Thinking and Learning with Both the Left and Right Brain in a Visual Culture. Leonardo 21.4 (1988): 413-419. Aeneid Book 4 Summary? Print.

New London Group. A Pedagogy of douglass my bondage my freedom Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures. Harvard Educational Review , 1996 66 (1), 60-92. Print. Rock, Margaret. From Talk to Telepathy. Mobiledia. 8 July 2013. Aeneid 4 Summary? Web. 1 July 2014. Selfe, Cynthia.

Toward New Media Texts: Taking Up the Challenges of Visual Literacy. In Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for specific capacity, Expanding the Teaching of aeneid book Composition . Affect The Rate Chemical Reaction? Eds. Anne Francis Wysocki, Johndan Johnson-Eilola, Cynthia L. Selfe, Geoffrey Sirc. Utah State P, Logan: Utah, 2004:67-110. Print. Smith, Aaron. African Americans and Technology Use: A Demographic Portrait. Aeneid 4 Summary? Pew Research Internet Project. 14 January 2014. Web.

6 June 2014. Stephens, Mitchell. The Rise of the Image, the Fall of the Word . New York: Oxford UP, 1998. Developmentally? Print. Stroupe, Craig.

Visualizing English: Recognizing the Hybrid Literacy of Visual and Verbal Authorship on the Web. College English 62.5 (2000): 607-632. Print. Trimbur, John. Delivering the Message: Typography and aeneid 4 summary the Materiality of Writing. Rhetoric and Composition as Intellectual Work . Ed. Appropriate Practice? Gary Olson.

Carbonddale: Southern Illinois UP, 2002. Aeneid Book 4 Summary? 188-202. Rpt. in aluminium, Visual Rhetoric in book 4 summary, a Digital World: A Critical Sourcebook . Ed. Specific Capacity Aluminium? Carolyn Handa. Boston: Bedford/St. Martinís P., 2004: 260-271. Print. Walker, Hunter. President Obama Is Glad He Didn't Get Emoji for Father's Day.

Business Insider. 17 June 2014. Web. 2 July 2014. Wilson, James A. and Walter R. Gove. The Intercohort Decline in Verbal Ability: Does It Exist? American Sociological Review . Aeneid Book 4 Summary? 64.2 (1999): 253-266. JSTOR . Web 20 July 2014.

Wortham, Jenna. Whimsical Texting Icons Get a Shot at Success. 11 December 2011. New York Times . n.p.17 June 2014. Web. Yancey, Kathleen. Made Not Only in Words: Composition in a New Key. College Composition and Communication . 56:2 (2004): 297-328. Print. Alfonso, Fernando III. Reinterpreting Classic Works of Art with #emojiarthistory.

The Daily Dot. 13 February 2013. Policy? Babel Fish Diagram. Hitchhiker Wiki. Aeneid 4 Summary? n.d. Web. 1 July 2014. Cyrus, Miley Ray. RT If You Think There Needs to new economic, be an #emojiethnicity Update.

18 December 2012, 7:05 p.m. Tweet. Doctorow, Cory. Crowdsourced Translation of Moby-Dick into Emoji. Boing Boing . Boing Boing, 21 September 2009. Web. 20 July 2014. Emoji Fortunes. Bakerís Blog.

6 June 2013. Emojify: Turn Pixels into Emoji Emoticons to Make Unique Art Images. Appszoom. Heston, Hailey. Light Bulb of Ideas. Wandering, Wondering. 29 March 2014. Web. 14 July 2014. Kahn, Justin.

How to Get Emoji Keyboard on iPad. ipad Notebook: Tips, Thoughts Apps. Web. Aeneid 4 Summary? . Lee, Eric. The Not-Complete Idiot's Guide to: Alternative Handwriting and finn Shorthand Systems for aeneid 4 summary, Dummies. n.d. Web. 10 June 2014. Psar, Ira. The Origins of Writing. In Heilbrun Timeline of how does temperature affect chemical Art History. New York: The Metroploitan Museum of Art. October 2004.

Web. 14 October 2014. Women Work in the Typewriting Department of the National Cash Register in Dayton, Ohio, 1902. Library of 4 summary Congress. Web.

The purpose of Global A Serious Essay all quoted material here is to quote and cite material within the bounds of academic fair use. I have attributed all authors and creators, providing a Works Cited. The copyrighted work used in this essay consists of texts, images and one video. In the case of text, less than one percent of the original has been quoted directly. Images have been used in their entirety.

The images of emoji are commonly used on the internet, nearing the status of alphabetic symbols.

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Ten Easy Ways to Improve Your Resume: Tips for Job-Seekers. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. In my line of work, I see hundreds of resumes, and book, I often see the same patterns over and over specific heat capacity again. I frequently observe resume tendencies that are not necessarily mistakes, yet the job-seekers behind these resumes could have much nicer, cleaner, more readable resumes if they just tweaked a few things. And none of these tweaks are hard to accomplish. Even if your resume has other problems, youíll see significant improvements if you make these 10 easy fixes. Use a bulleted style to make your resume more reader-friendly. Given that employers screen resumes for as few as 6 seconds, they will find your resume a lot more readable if you use bullet points instead of paragraph style. Itís just easier to aeneid book, read. Follow ďThe Resume Ingredients Rule.Ē Set forth by Donald Asher, author of numerous resume books (see our QA with him), the rule says that information on a resume should be listed in order of importance to affect the rate of a chemical, the reader. Therefore, in listing your jobs, whatís generally most important is your title/position.

So list in this preferred order: Title/position, name of employer, city/state of employer, dates of employment. Book 4 Summary. I canít tell you how many resumes Iíve seen that list dates first. Global A Serious Problem. Dates can be important to some employers, but theyíre generally not as important as what your position was and whom you worked for. Not only 4 summary, that, but listing dates first can hurt you with the software employers use (Applicant Tracking Systems) to temperature affect reaction, screen resumes. ďTo ensure applicant tracking systems read and import your work experience properly,Ē Meridith Levinson wrote on,Ē never start your work experience with the dates you held certain positions.Ē Education follows the same principle; thus, the preferred order for listing your education is: Name of degree (spelled out: Bachelor of óóó) in name of major, name of university, city/state of university, graduation year, followed by peripheral information, such as minor and GPA. If you havenít graduated yet, list your information the same way. Simply by book 4 summary virtue of the fact that the graduation date youíve listed is in the future, the employer will know you donít have the degree yet. If youíre not comfortable listing your grad date when you donít yet have the frederick douglass my freedom degree, you can say, for example, ďexpected May 2014.Ē By the way, the Resume Ingredients Rule is also the reason that experience and education are listed in aeneid, reverse chronological order on Global A Serious Problem, your resume; itís assumed that your most recent education and experience are most important and aeneid book 4 summary, relevant to the reader.

Eliminate ďresponsibilitiesĒ words from your resume vocabulary. Never use expressions like ďDuties included,Ē ďResponsibilities included,Ē or ďResponsible forĒ on your resume. Why? Because your resume should be accomplishments-driven, not responsibilities-driven. Anyone (well, maybe not anyoneÖ) can perform the duties listed in a job description. Job-description language is not what sells in a resume. Accomplishments-oriented language tells employers how youíve gone above and beyond in appropriate practice, your jobs, what makes you special, how youíve taken initiative and 4 summary, made your jobs your own. Overpopulation: Problem. Check out our article, For Job-Hunting Success: Track/Leverage Your Accomplishments, and Accomplishments Worksheet. Eliminate clutter from your resume. Several elements can clutter up your resume and impede readability: Unnecessary dates.

Donít list dates that donít add anything to your resume; for example, dates you spent involved in college extracurricular activities. If you were involved in aeneid, these activities during college, the reader can pretty much guess your dates of involvement, and listing the dates will just clutter up your document. Same with dates of involvement in professional or civic organizations; ask yourself if those dates will be meaningful to the employer reading your resume. Developmentally Appropriate Practice. Parentheses. Job-seekers have a particular tendency to set off dates of employment with parentheses. Itís easier on the reader if you just use commas. The line ďReferences: Available upon request.Ē This statement is highly optional because it is a given that you will provide references upon request.

If you couldnít, you would have no business looking for a job. The line can serve the purpose of signaling: ďThis is the end of aeneid 4 summary, my resume,Ē but if you are trying to conserve space, leave it off. Articles. Those little words ďa,Ē ďan,Ē and ďthe.Ē Generally speaking, resumes arenít written in sentence form, but in concise phrases that have become an accepted shorthand that employers understand. Articles tend to lenin's new economic policy of 1921, clutter up that shorthand; your resume will read in a more streamlined manner without them. Consider these ďbeforeĒ and ďafterĒ examples: Arenít the ďAfterĒ versions a lot more streamlined? Use strong, concrete verbs to describe your jobs, and donít mix noun and verb phrases. Book 4 Summary. Letís look at this example: Managed and controlled all aspects of specific capacity aluminium, companyís West Coast presence. [verb] Complete ownership of inventory and book 4 summary, financial standards. [noun] Full PL responsibilities. [noun] Analyzed market and forecast sales, prepared corporate budgets and monitored results to achieve ROI objectives. [verb] Instead, be consistent with verbs: Supervised inventory and temperature of a chemical reaction, financial standards.

Completely oversaw profit and book, loss aspects of operation. Also avoid the weak verbs, ďto be,Ē ďto do,Ē and ďto work.Ē Everyone works. Be more specific. ďCollaborate(d)Ē is often a good substitute. Instead of: ďWorked with Marketing Department to launch promotional campaign,Ē say ďCollaborated with Marketing Department to launch promotional campaign.Ē Focus on developmentally appropriate, describing past job activities that highlight the aeneid 4 summary skills you most like to use and heat capacity aluminium, want to use in book, your next job. Donít waste words, for example, describing all that clerical stuff you did in a past job if you have no intention of doing clerical work again. Even if youíve mastered skills that are in specific aluminium, great demand, donít emphasize them if theyíre not the skills you want to book, use in the future.

Donít fret about the Global Problem Essay one-page resume rule. Sure, itís nice to keep your resume to one page if you can, but donít go to extraordinary lengths, such as by using tiny type. If you have significant experience, youíll probably need more than one page. Book 4 Summary. What you should avoid is having one full page with just a little bit of text on your second page. If you fill a third or less of the Overpopulation: second page, consider condensing to one page. Aeneid Book 4 Summary. Ways to condense: Narrow your margins. The margins in Microsoft Word are set very wide by default.

You can have margins as narrow as .75? all around and still have a nice-looking document. Use a smaller point size, but not too small. Developmentally Appropriate. A font size of 11-point is good; donít go smaller than 10.5-point. Many jobseekers use a two-column format with headings in the left-hand column. To conserve space, narrow or even eliminate the left-hand column and simply stack your headings on top of each section. Formatting such as columns doesnít work well with employersí Applicant Tracking Systems. Make sure your resume has a sharp focus. Aeneid Book 4 Summary. Again, given the microscopic amount of time that employers spend screening resumes, you need a way to show the employer at a glance what you want to heat capacity, do and what youíre good at.

One way is to add a section called something like ďSummary of Qualifications,Ē or ďProfile.Ē Learn more in our article, Your Job-Search Resume Needs a Focal Point: How Job-Seekers Can Add Focus to aeneid 4 summary, Resumes. For examples of A Serious, such sections, see most of the aeneid book samples in our Sample Professional Resumes for All Job-Seekers, and consider using our Resume Professional Profile/Qualifications Summary Worksheet. Donít emphasize older experience on your resume. The rule of thumb for someone at the senior level is to spotlight about 15 years worth of jobs. How Does Chemical Reaction. Age discrimination, unfortunately, is a reality. Because many hiring decision-makers want to aeneid book 4 summary, see your full experience, itís best to list older experience in bare-bones fashion ó with or without dates ó in a section labeled, ďPrevious Professional Experience.Ē Similarly, donít give the tom sawyer vs huck finn date of aeneid book 4 summary, your college graduation if it was more than about of 1921, 10 years ago. Be sure the reader will understand all the aeneid book 4 summary acronyms and lenin's new economic policy, jargon you use in your resume.

Resumes in the high-tech field are notorious for these mysterious terms. We recently received a resume containing the following acronyms and jargon: MCSE, MCP+I, TCP/IP, CCA, CCNA, token ring and PCMCIA network interface cards for LAN connectivity, NT Service Packs, Ethernet cards, Server 4.0, SQL 6.5, 7.0, Red Hat Linux 6.1, Turbo Linux 4.0 and Caldera 2.3, Cisco 2500 routers and switches. Now, chances are that employers in this jobseekerís field understand all these terms. Just be sure thatís the aeneid book 4 summary case. Spell out any acronyms you think could be questionable, and explain any terms you think some readers of your resume might not understand. College students, too, need to appropriate practice, be aware of ďinsideĒ jargon. At Stetson University, my alma mater, for example, we have an annual charity fundraiser called ďGreenfeather;Ē freshman-orientation leaders called ďFOCUSĒ advisers; and a volunteer organization called ďInto the Streets.Ē The schoolís graduates routinely use those terms on their resumes without any explanation, as though everyone knows what Greenfeather, FOCUS, and Into the Streets mean. Look at your resume from an aeneid book 4 summary, outsiderís perspective ó and explain (or eliminate) any unfamiliar terms or acronyms. Bonus tip: Be sure to list locations (city and state) for all your past employers. Itís resume protocol to do so, and employers expect to see that information.

Iím constantly amazed at all the resumes I see that list names of frederick douglass my freedom, past employers, but donít tell where those employers are located. Questions about some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to our Job-Seekerís Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of 4 summary, Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for tom sawyer, Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and 4 summary, blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career . Katharine, who earned her PhD in frederick douglass my bondage my freedom, organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of aeneid book 4 summary, Dynamic Cover Letters for Global Overpopulation: Problem, New Graduates and book, A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and lenin's new economic policy, with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiotís Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at book kathy(at) Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. QUINTESSENTIAL RESUME-WRITING PARTNER. LiveCareerís Resume Builder is the fastest, most efficient way to build an effective resume. Featuring hundreds of templates and professional designs for all jobs and lenin's policy, industries, Resume Builder also includes sample phrases written by our experts, plus helpful tips and advice to make your resume stand out. Weíll guide you step by aeneid 4 summary step through the process, so you can build an impressive resume that will make employers want to know more.

Ready to jump-start your job search and the rate of a reaction, move closer to reaching your goals? Try Resume Builder today, and learn how easy it is to create your own resume. Weíre so confident that youíll love Resume Builder that you can try it for 4 summary, FREE! ave you take advantage of all the many fre resume tools, a ticles, samples, and more that we have in frederick my bondage, the Resume Resources section of book 4 summary, Quintessential Careers? Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareerís team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills.

Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to new economic policy, help land the aeneid book job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of specific capacity, Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of He is also founder of and He is publisher of book, Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is how does temperature affect the rate of a chemical reaction also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. Heís often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the book country. Finally, Dr.

Hansen is specific capacity aluminium also an educator, having taught at the college level for aeneid book, more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at Check out tom sawyer vs huck finn Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for book 4 summary, Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career.

Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Problem Essay Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is aeneid author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and temperature affect the rate chemical, with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiotís Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at Aeneid Book 4 Summary. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for my bondage, all things career-change related.

Youíll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for book 4 summary, a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and capacity, Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and book 4 summary, scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an new economic policy of 1921, archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists.

Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of aeneid 4 summary, Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employerís Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on vs huck, their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to aeneid book, the career and employment section of the Global Overpopulation: A Serious [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employerís Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and book 4 summary, employment centers on aluminium, their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the []

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12 Outdoor Survival Skills Every Guy Should Master. Sure, youíre in 4 summary, decent shape, and your iPhone has GPS and an app for everything. But what happens when youíre injured or stranded and policy the batteries die? You need a few key skills for the inevitable moment when you findóor loseóyourself without that digital crutch. Survival expert Creek Stewart, author of Build The Perfect Bug-Out Bag: Your 72-Hour Disaster Survival Kit , has spent thousands of hours testing himself in real world survival scenarios and training others to be competent in the skills heís learned. ďItís not if disaster will strike,Ē he likes to say. ďBut when.Ē Locating a Suitable Campsite. ďYou want to stay high and aeneid 4 summary dry,Ē Stewart says. Avoid valleys and paths where water may flow toward you (flash floods get their name for a reasonóthey can deluge a low-lying area in specific heat, minutes). Choose a campsite free from natural dangers like insect nests and widow-makersódead branches that may crash down in the middle of the nightóas well as falling rocks. Book 4 Summary! Ideally, you want to be close to resources like running water, dry wood (from which you can assemble your shelter and build a fire) and rocky walls or formations that can shield you from the elements. Not surprisingly, hypothermia is the number one outdoor killer in lenin's new economic, cold weather. That means a well-insulated shelter should be your top priority in a prolonged survival situation.

To make a simple lean-to, find a downed tree resting at an angle, or set a large branch securely against aeneid book, a standing tree, and stack smaller branches close together on one side. Layer debris, like leaves and moss, across the angled wall. Lastly, insulate yourself from the Global A Serious cold ground--which will draw heat from your warm body--by layering four to six inches of debris to lie on. Starting a Fire With a Battery. Any battery will do, says Stewart. ďItís about short-circuiting the battery.Ē Connect the negative and book positive terminals with a wire, foil (like a gum wrapper), or steel wool to create a spark to drive onto Essay, your tinder bundle. Have your firewood ready.

Stewart views fire building in terms of four key ingredients: tinder bundle of book 4 summary dry, fibrous material (cotton balls covered in Vaseline or lip balm are an excellent choice, if youíve got them) and wood in three sizesótoothpick, Q-tip, and appropriate practice pencil. Use a forearm-sized log as a base and windscreen for your tinder. When the aeneid tinder is lit, stack the of a smaller kindling against the larger log, like a lean-to, to allow oxygen to pass through and feed the aeneid flames. Add larger kindling as the flame grows, until the fire is hot enough for bigger logs. ďYouíll come across two kinds of water in the wild,Ē Stewart says. ďPotable water thatís already purified, and water that can kill you.Ē When it comes to questionable wateróessentially anything thatís been on the ground long-term, like puddles and streamsóyour best option is Essay boiling water, which is 100 percent effective in killing pathogens. But sometimes boiling isnt an option. Collecting Water With a Transpiration Bag.

Like humans, plants ďsweatĒ throughout the dayóitís a process called transpiration. To take advantage of this clean, pure source of water, put a clear plastic bag over aeneid, a leafy branch and tie it tightly closed. When you return later in the day, water will have condensed on the inside of the bag, ready to drink. Identifying Edible Plants. Thereís no need to go after big game in a survival situation, and developmentally practice chances are youíll waste energy in a fruitless attempt to 4 summary bring them down. ďMake your living on the smalls,Ē Stewart says. That means eating edible plants (as well as small critters like fish, frogs, and lizards).

Using a Split-tip Gig to Catch Critters. Gigging (hunting with a multi-pronged spear) is the simplest way to catch anything from snakes to fish. Cut down a sapling of about an inch in diameter, and then split the fat end with a knife (or sharp rock) into four equal sections ten inches down. Push a stick between the tines to spread them apart, then sharpen the how does temperature affect the rate of a chemical points. Youíve got an easy-to-use four-pronged spear.

Much easier for catching critters than a single sharp point. If you ever find yourself without a GPS tool (or a simple map and compass) you can still use the book 4 summary sky to developmentally appropriate practice find your way. The most obvious method to get a general bearing by day is to look at the sun, which rises approximately in the east and sets approximately in the west anywhere in the world. But you can also use an analog watch to find the aeneid north-south line. Just hold the watch horizontally and how does affect the rate point the hour hand at the sun. Imagine a line running exactly midway between the aeneid book hour hand and 12 oíclock.

This is the capacity aluminium north-south line. On daylight savings? Draw the line between the aeneid hour hand and one oíclock. Find Polaris, or the North Star, which is the end of the Little Dipperís handle. If you can find the Big Dipper, draw a line between the lenin's new economic policy two stars at the outer edge of the constellationís dipper portion. Aeneid 4 Summary! Extend this line toward the Little Dipper, and it will line up with Polaris.

Face Polaris, and tom sawyer finn youíre facing true north. Aeneid! If there is a crescent moon in vs huck, the sky, connect the horns of the aeneid crescent with an capacity aluminium imaginary line. Extend this line to 4 summary the horizon to indicate a southerly bearing. Once you determine your direction, pick a landmark nearby or in the distance to follow by daylight. Knots come in handy for a slew of survival scenariosótying snares, securing shelters, lowering equipment or yourself down a cliff face. Ideally, you should have an arsenal of knots, from hitches to bends to loops, in your repertoire. But if you learn only one, learn the bowline. Sending Up a Survival Signal. At timesólike when you have a debilitating injuryóyour only temperature affect chemical hope for aeneid book 4 summary getting saved is to maximize your visibility so rescuers can find you.

Two methods, if used properly, will guarantee that, if someoneís looking, theyíll see you. Copyright © 2017 Weider Publications, LLC, a subsidiary of American Media, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Free Information Technology essays. Internet telephony or Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a product that is quickly changing the telecom industry and how people communicate. With the rise of 4 summary VoIP services means nothing less than the Global Problem Essay, death of the traditional telephone business. VoIP is an aeneid book 4 summary emerging technology that utilizes the temperature affect the rate of a reaction, Internet infrastructure to book 4 summary make phone calls as opposed to the traditional public switched telephone network (PSTN) that has been in place for more than a century. With VoIP there is the ability to make free phone calls over the high-speed Internet connection which undermines the existing price model for telephony. How Does The Rate Reaction? Since VoIP functions like a traditional telephone system but travels through a broadband Internet connection, the aeneid, Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has questioned how to classify VoIP. Should it be classified as an information service or a telecommunication service? If VoIP is classified as an information service then it would generally be free from FCC regulation under the Telecommunications Act of 1996.

On the other hand if VoIP is classified as a telecommunication service then it would be subject to a comprehensive regulatory regime and common carrier obligations. As we know with any new technology, there will be legal and regulatory impact. VoIP will challenge the current regulatory framework and rules. Facing this new technology, the United States must determine what regulatory framework should apply to Essay the regulation and administration of VoIP. In the United States telecommunications is highly regulated industry but currently the aeneid 4 summary, Internet remains largely unregulated.

This research paper has four main objectives. Part one will discuss the regulatory issue and the classification of VoIP as either a Ďtelecommunications serviceí or an finn Ďinformation service.í Part two will address how the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) classifies VoIP services. Part three will address the benefits and risks of VoIP service to businesses. Part four will discuss the growing issue of network neutrality and aeneid, its necessity. The last section of my paper will be the conclusion that addresses the Problem Essay, open debate on whether VoIP services should be regulated. PART I: REGULATION ISSUES. This section of my research paper will discuss the regulation issues between Public Switched Telephone Network (PTSN) and aeneid book 4 summary, VoIP. Letís get started by talking about some of the public safety issues that concern state regulators. The first public safety issue is around access to emergency services such as 911. What is important to note here is that the new economic of 1921, technology consumerís use should not matter. But what does matters is aeneid, that consumers have access to emergency services.

When using a traditional PSTN line, people in trouble dial 911 on their phone and lenin's of 1921, the police department can quickly determine their location. However, when using VoIP service a user can make a call from anywhere around the world but the call will originate from the userís home phone number. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) requires that providers of Ďinterconnectedí VoIP services that use the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) meet Enhanced 911 (E911) obligations. The FCC imposed many requirements. Book 4 Summary? The first requirement is that all interconnected VoIP providers must provide 911 services as a standard. The second requirement is that the VoIP provider must obtain from the customers the location at which the service will be used. Specific Heat Aluminium? The third requirement is that interconnected VoIP providers must be able to transmit all 911 calls.

The fourth requirement is for interconnected VoIP providers to clearly articulate to their customers the book, possible limitations of their 911 service and receive acknowledgement from them. The last requirement involves the aluminium, Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP). PSAP will be used when emergency service providers are not capable of receiving or processing the location information of the aeneid 4 summary, call received. However, there are still differences between VoIP E911 and how does temperature the rate chemical reaction, traditional telephone 911 service in that they work differently. The second public safety issue relates to wiretapping access for law enforcement. Book? The telephone system plays a critical role in law enforcement. How Does Temperature Of A Chemical Reaction? FBI officials can easily tap into PSTN circuits but have difficulty with intercepting circuits used in VoIP. FBI supports its beliefs that VoIP service providers must allow wiretapping under the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA). According to the FCC website, ĎCALEA requires a ďtelecommunications carrier,Ē as defined by the Act, to aeneid ensure that equipment, facilities, or services that allow a customer or subscriber to ďoriginate, terminate, or direct communications,Ē enable law enforcement officials to conduct electronic surveillance pursuant to court order or other lawful authorization. CALEA was intended to preserve the ability of law enforcement agencies to conduct electronic surveillance by requiring that telecommunications carriers and heat aluminium, manufacturers of telecommunications equipment modify and design their equipment, facilities, and services to ensure that they have the necessary surveillance capabilities as communications network technologies evolve.í FCC Encyclopedia Print Email. (n.d.).

Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act. Aeneid 4 Summary? Retrieved February 15, 2014, from policy, Currently only PSTN service providers and wireless phone services have been subject to this legislation. Aeneid Book 4 Summary? The issue is VoIP is not defined as a telecommunications carrier and tom sawyer finn, if it was it would then be subject to book CALEA. VoIP is an Internet based application and is classified as Title I ĎInformation Servicesí which are lightly regulated. The Commission has deregulated information services which mean the states cannot regulate them. VoIP may mimic traditional telephone service in functionality but it does transmit over the Internet rather than the public switched telephone network. This is where the issue comes into appropriate, play, can states regulate Title II service carried over aeneid Title I network? The Commission has provided very little guidance regarding this question. Now letís move on to talk about the tax dilemma.

Should VoIP be taxed in the same way as traditional telephone? The traditional phone service carries a lot of different taxes such as state, federal and local taxes. Depending on where you live, some areas charge a county tax. Should these same taxes apply to developmentally practice VoIP? Regulators argue that VoIP is a telecommunication service no different than a phone service and therefore should pay the same taxes and fees. Others argue that VoIP is a data service, not a phone service; therefore, it shouldnít be regulated or taxed like the traditional public telephone networks. On the other hand States do have a distinct interest in aeneid 4 summary, taxing telecommunications services because they rely on these taxes to fund universal services such as 911 services. Practice? Currently there are some taxes included on companyís VoIP bill but it is far less than a traditional landline. VoIP providers are under pressure to 4 summary contain these costs to remain competitive.

I believe that hands off approach to VoIP should be considered to allow the technology to mature to developmentally appropriate encourage our economy to be competitive and to wait and see what direction it will take to 4 summary encourage more investment and A Serious Problem Essay, uptake. If you take the advances of the technology you may inhibit its adoption. VoIP services should dodge these fees because communications occur mostly over the Internet rather than PSTN line when you make a VoIP call. Simply put, VoIP is classified as an book information service and not telecom carriers. PART II: HOW DOES THE FCC CLASSIFY VoIP SERVICES. This is a Federal Regulation issue and regulators are trying to determine and/or define what VoIP is and where it falls in the context of existing framework. The FCC will need to decide whether to classify VoIP as an information service or as a telecommunications service. According to heat aluminium US law, an information service is generally free from aeneid, regulation while a telecommunications service may be subject to frederick my bondage my freedom old line common carrier requirements. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 sets forth the differences in aeneid, definition and specific aluminium, regulation of aeneid these services. Per page 991 of our textbook, ĎThe definitions of the douglass, terms Ďtelecommunications serviceí and book, Ďinformation serviceí established by the 1996 Act are similar to the Computer II basic- and enhanced-service classifications. ĎTelecommunications serviceĒthe analog to basic serviceíis Ďthe offering of telecommunications for a fee directly to the publicíregardless of the facilities used.í 47 U.S.C. ??153(46). ĎTelecommunicationsí is Ďthe transmission, between or among points specified by the user, of information of the userís choosing, without change in frederick my bondage my freedom, the form or content of the information as sent and received.í ??153(43). Aeneid Book? ĎTelecommunications carrier[s]Ēthose subjected to how does temperature the rate of a chemical reaction mandatory Title II common-carrier regulationíare defined as Ďproviders] of telecommunications services.í ??153(44).

And Ďinformation serviceĒthe analog to enhanced serviceíis Ďthe offering of a capability for generating, acquiring, storing, transforming, processing, retrieving, utilizing, or making available information via telecommunications.í Benjamin, S. M., Lichtman, D. G., Shelanski, H., Weiser, P. J. (2006). Aeneid? Telecommunications Law and Policy, Second Edition. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press. If the FCC chooses to define VoIP under Title One of the Telecommunications Act, it would make VoIP essentially regulation-free, much like other Internet content. But if the FCC chooses the latter and defines VoIP under Title Two, the Global Overpopulation: A Serious Problem, government will regulate VoIP under the myriad of aeneid book regulations that has been developed for douglass my bondage the telephone industry.

The application of this classification to different types of VOIP services is based on two FCC rulings in 2004. In FCC Vonage Order 11-2004 the aeneid 4 summary, district court examined the finn, recent history of regulations governing the telecommunications industry. The court found in its 1980 Computer II decision, the FCC had recognized the growing challenges posed by the interaction between computers and telecommunications technology. ĎThe premier legacy of Computer II is the establishment of the basic versus enhanced dichotomy. This layered approach to regulation becomes the bedrock of the computer inquiries success, and book, distinguishes it from other international schemes. It established a bright-line test and amplified the separation of the specific heat aluminium, communications facility from the enhancement.í Cybertelecom: Computer II. (n.d.). Cybertelecom: Computer II. Aeneid 4 Summary? Retrieved February 14, 2014, from At that time, the FCC distinguished between Ďbasic servicesí like telephone service and Ďenhanced servicesí like computer-processing service offered over telephone lines noting that Ďbasic servicesí would continue to be regulated by developmentally, Title Two while Ďenhanced servicesí would go unregulated. The FCC further stated that the book, absence of regulation of Global Overpopulation: Problem Ďenhanced servicesí offers the greatest potential for aeneid 4 summary efficient utilization and full exploitation of the interstate telecommunications network. Vonageís VoIP service offers an enhanced service not a telecommunications service under the Commissionís rules.

The FCC and the United States District Court of Minnesota recognized that Vonageís VoIP service is an information service and cannot be regulated by the states. Temperature Affect Of A? Based on this federal policy, current federal regulators continue to aeneid 4 summary keep VoIP free from regulation. The FCC concluded in February 2004 that Pulver.comís Free World Dialup , a service that facilitated voice communication between computer users over the Internet, was an unregulated information service, in part because the company did not provide transmission and did not charge for how does of a reaction its services. The FCC explained that traditional telephone rules do not necessarily apply to all voice services and that state-by-state regulation of book a wholly Internet-based service is inconsistent with the controlling federal role over interstate commerce required by the Constitution. Specific Capacity? The FCCís decision in aeneid book 4 summary, this case was that Pulverís computer-to-computer services were ĎInformation Servicesí instead of ĎTelecommunicationsí. Pulverís services were under the deregulatory framework of Title I of the Communications Act instead of the highly regulated common carrier telephone regime of Title II of the Act. Title II captures all the traditional, land-line monopoly telephone services. Pulverís service did not involve PSTN to warrant common carrier telephone regulation.

PART III: THE BENEFITS AND RISKS TO SOCIETY. Many businesses are cancelling their traditional land lines in favor of the new technology VoIP due to the reaping benefits of cost savings, data integration, productivity, efficiency and system portability. While VoIP services can be less expensive than standard telephone network services, call quality can be a factor in oneís decision to switch to VoIP. However, with constant innovation and updates to VoIP will make its service comparable to the traditional phone system. Although VoIP may offer some good benefits, businesses need to be aware and understand the risks as well. With any new technology, itís important to understand the tom sawyer finn, legal and regulatory impact. As VoIP continues to aeneid 4 summary grow there is a risk of government regulation.

Certain governments are keen on protecting the position of legacy telecoms incumbents. There is developmentally, no common regulatory standard. The regulatory burden is considered high as each country needs to be considered separately. Businesses may need to aeneid obtain telecom license from the local regulator and be required to capacity aluminium provide emergency call access number portability between traditional public switched telephone networks (ďPSTNĒ) and VoIP services, and aeneid book, net neutrality. Overpopulation: A Serious? If there is aeneid 4 summary, federal regulation this would create more competitive interconnections and will reshape how VoIP is specific heat capacity, managed. The FCC would enter into the Internet circuit as an official regulator. Itís all about striking the aeneid, right balance between regulation for consumer protection and freedom for service providers. Specific? I do not think regulating VoIP would protect consumers nor would it provide them with a level playing field because new technologies do not develop on a level playing field. Although I do not object to regulation per se, but do not believe it should be done by the states alone. Having state by aeneid 4 summary, state regulations make for a messy market, there is the issue of different rules being imposed.

The risk is using the Overpopulation: Problem, mindset of the old telecom world on a new and book, very different kind of technology.í PART IV: NETWORK NEUTRALITY. Network neutrality is Problem, a growing issue. The basic principle behind network neutrality is aeneid book, that the Internet should remain free of lenin's policy any discrimination or barriers among classes of users or of information stored and transmitted on the Internet. This implies no matter whom or where the aeneid book 4 summary, user is the finn, connection, quality, and the prices will remain equal. Many large corporate interests, especially software and applications providers, from Yahoo! and Amazon to eBay and Microsoft have been urging the FCC, Congress and 4 summary, even state legislatures to appropriate adopt laws that codify network neutrality on the Internet.

So why would Internet Service Providers (ISP) like VoIP want to change it? These and other companies want to change the terms of network neutrality to increase large corporate profits and possibly push out smaller competitors. ISP view is that running a network is expensive and aeneid book, that you should be charged by the amount of data you use in the same way that your electrical company charges you. The Internet has always been neutral so why would the government bureaucracy think they can manage the Internet. If the frederick douglass my freedom, Internet were regulated by government bureaucracy it would be far less advanced and not as useful as it is today. FCC wants to know how much power they have to regulate ISPs since they regulate the traditional telephone companies.

The FCC would not be able to use the same tools as they use to regulate ISPs. FCC tried to regulate ISPs and the court found that the FCC was trying to apply Title II obligations to book companies that are regulated under Title I of the Telecommunications Act which is the douglass, law that created the FCC and gives it its power. The court did agree with FCC idea of network neutrality but did not like the way the FCC handled it. At this point, the FCC has the option to appeal. They can ask for a rehearing or redefine what an ISP is so that they VoIP would fall into class Title II.

This process is known as reclassification. The basic questions that have been faced by regulators all over the world are about the necessity and the scope of VoIP regulation. The open question remains whether VoIP services should be regulated? Should a light-regulated approach on VoIP services be employed focusing on public interest and consumers benefits? It is 4 summary, my belief that the Commission should end this battle once and for all. Following are the basic principles that regulators should consider to become the nationalís regulatory framework adequate to lenin's new economic of 1921 the VoIP reality. First principle, I think VoIP should be classified as a Title I Information Service. I do not find it favorable to aeneid 4 summary subject two services that consumers view as substitutes to two different regulatory regimes. Specific Heat Aluminium? This doesnít make much sense to me. Second principle, the Internet Protocol nature of VoIP technology means it functions like an information service opposed to a telecommunications service.

Third principle, the regulatory burdens of book Title II carry government control in lieu of specific aluminium oversight, mandates, and compliance. Title II of the Communications Act is highly regulated. A common carrier subject to Title II regulation maybe subject to price regulation and they must interconnect with other carriers at aeneid book, FCC determined rates. The common carrier must also contribute to practice the universal service fund and be in compliance with public safety obligations. Fourth principle, regulators should remove legal and regulatory barriers to the development of VoIP (deregulation). Fifth principle consists of book 4 summary no price regulation; VoIP providers should be free to set their own prices. Sixth principle, the whole telecom players should finance universal service Ď including VoIP service providers. Douglass My Freedom? Seventh principle, it is my opinion that state regulation of intrastate telephone service is a thing of the past. Aeneid Book 4 Summary? This made sense during an era when customers distinguished between local and long-distance service and when state services were dominated by local monopolies which required regulatory oversight. If states are permitted to regulate new emerging services like they did the old telephone monopoly it would hinder the growth of this new technology, create barriers to entry, and it would delay the benefits of finn competition in voice service. In summary, I feel they should postpone regulating the aeneid, Internet.

Since the Internet is worldwide every government would need to agree on some type of regulation and that would be difficult to tom sawyer finn do and I donít envision that happening. It is impossible to get several countries to agree on anything. Lastly, I would like to make a comment on the article ĎWho Killed the aeneid book 4 summary, VoIP Revolutioní. In my opinion, the my freedom, VoIP to PSTN is not dead, itís alive and kicking, and aeneid book 4 summary, still being defined. People need phone services but they do not want to pay Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) prices.

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